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Tschechische Personengruppen begannen im Juni , die deutschen Haus- und Grundeigentümer sowie Firmeninhaber zu enteignen und deren Besitz zu übernehmen.
Die Einwohnerzahl sank nochmals und viele Werkstätten und Fabriken wurden betriebsunfähig. Bis war Asch überwiegend von Deutschböhmen besiedelt, die vertrieben wurden.
In der ersten Hälfte des Jahrhunderts, als mechanische Webstühle eingeführt wurden, entwickelte sich in der Stadt Asch die Textilindustrie zu einer Haupteinnahmequelle.
Zunächst wurden zu Beginn des Jahrhunderts auf Handwebstühlen baumwollene Kopf- und Halstücher, Musseline und Schleier, seit auch Tischtücher und Möbelstoffe, seit halb- und reinwollene Damenkleiderstoffe, Halbseidenstoffe und Flanelle hergestellt.
Es haben nur einige kleine Textilbetriebe und metallverarbeitende Werkstätten als Arbeitgeber überstanden. Schumanns Jugendliebe Ernestine von Fricken stammte aus Asch.
Dieser Artikel beschreibt die tschechische Stadt. Zu anderen ähnlich geschriebenen Bedeutungen siehe AS. Versteckte Kategorie: Wikipedia:Weblink offline.
Namensräume Artikel Diskussion. There are several centres of tourist activity. There are 12 cathedrals and 15 churches elevated to the rank of basilica by the Pope, calm monasteries, many modern and ancient churches — for example Pilgrimage Church of Saint John of Nepomuk is one of those inscribed on the World Heritage List.
The country is also known for its various museums. Puppetry and marionette exhibitions are very popular, with a number of puppet festivals throughout the country.
The total fertility rate TFR in was estimated at 1. About 77, people immigrate to the Czech Republic annually.
According to preliminary results of the census, the majority of the inhabitants of the Czech Republic are Czechs As the 'nationality' was an optional item, a substantial number of people left this field blank There were , 4.
Most of the foreign population lives in Prague The Jewish population of Bohemia and Moravia, , according to the census, was virtually annihilated by the Nazi Germans during the Holocaust.
At the turn of the 20th century, Chicago was the city with the third largest Czech population,  after Prague and Vienna.
Christianization in the 9th and 10th centuries introduced Catholicism. Taborites and Utraquists were major Hussite groups. Following the joint Utraquist—Catholic victory, Utraquism was accepted as a distinct form of Christianity to be practiced in Bohemia by the Catholic Church while all remaining Hussite groups were prohibited.
In the wake of the Reformation, Utraquist Hussites took a renewed increasingly anti-Catholic stance, while some of the defeated Hussite factions notably Taborites were revived.
After the Habsburgs regained control of Bohemia, the whole population was forcibly converted to Catholicism—even the Utraquist Hussites.
Going forward, Czechs have become more wary and pessimistic of religion as such. A long history of resistance to the Catholic Church followed.
It suffered a schism with the neo-Hussite Czechoslovak Hussite Church in , lost the bulk of its adherents during the Communist era and continues to lose in the modern, ongoing secularization.
Protestantism never recovered after the Counter-Reformation was introduced by the Austrian Habsburgs in Education in the Czech Republic is compulsory for 9 years and citizens have access to a tuition-free university education , while the average number of years of education is Healthcare in the Czech Republic is similar in quality to other developed nations.
The Czech universal health care system is based on a compulsory insurance model , with fee-for-service care funded by mandatory employment-related insurance plans.
Theodoric of Prague was the most famous Czech painter in the Gothic era. For example, he decorated the castle Karlstejn. At the end of the century came a wave of Art Nouveau.
Alfons Mucha became the main representative. He is today the most famous Czech painter. The 20th century brought avant-garde revolution.
The Czech Republic is known worldwide for its individually made, mouth blown and decorated Bohemian glass. The earliest preserved stone buildings in Bohemia and Moravia date back to the time of the Christianization in the 9th and 10th century.
Since the Middle Ages, the Czech lands have been using the same architectural styles as most of Western and Central Europe.
The oldest still standing churches were built in the Romanesque style St. George's Basilica , St. Vitus Cathedral , St.
During the Hussite wars , many of them were damaged or destroyed. An example of the pure Renaissance architecture in Bohemia is the Queen Anne's Summer Palace , which was situated in a newly established garden of Prague Castle.
In the 17th century, the Baroque style spread throughout the Crown of Bohemia. Very outstanding are the architectural projects of the Czech nobleman and imperial generalissimo Albrecht von Wallenstein from the s Wallenstein Palace.
His architects Andrea Spezza and Giovanni Pieroni reflected the most recent Italian production and were very innovative at the same time.
In the first third of the 18th century the Bohemian lands were one of the leading artistic centers of the Baroque style. In Bohemia there was completed the development of the Radical Baroque style created in Italy by Francesco Borromini and Guarino Guarini in a very original way.
In the 18th century Bohemia produced an architectural peculiarity — the Baroque Gothic style , a synthesis of the Gothic and Baroque styles.
This was not a simple return to Gothic details, but rather an original Baroque transformation. During the 19th century, the revival architectural styles were very popular in the Bohemian monarchy.
Peter and Paul in Brno. At the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries the new art style appeared in the Czech lands — Art Nouveau.
Bohemia contributed an unusual style to the world's architectural heritage when Czech architects attempted to transpose the Cubism of painting and sculpture into architecture House of the Black Madonna.
During the first years of the independent Czechoslovakia after , a specifically Czech architectural style, called Rondo-Cubism , came into existence.
Together with the pre-war Czech Cubist architecture it is unparalleled elsewhere in the world. The first Czechoslovak president T. Between World Wars I and II, Functionalism , with its sober, progressive forms, took over as the main architectural style in the newly established Czechoslovak Republic.
In the city of Brno, one of the most impressive functionalist works has been preserved — Villa Tugendhat , designed by the architect Ludwig Mies van der Rohe.
Hotel International in Prague is a brilliant example of the so-called Socialist realism , the Stalinistic art style of the s. The Czechoslovak avant-garde artistic movement known as the Brussels style named after the Brussels World's Fair Expo 58 became popular in the time of political liberalization of Czechoslovakia in the s.
Even today, the Czech Republic is not shying away from the most modern trends of international architecture. In a strict sense, Czech literature is the literature written in the Czech language.
A more liberal definition incorporates all literary works written in the Czech lands regardless of language.
Thus Franz Kafka , who—while bilingual in Czech and German   —wrote his works The Trial , The Castle in German, during the era of Austrian rule, can represent the Czech , German or Austrian literature depending on the point of view.
Bible translations played an important role in the development of Czech literature and the standard Czech language. The oldest Czech translation of the Psalms originated in the late 13th century and the first complete Czech translation of the Bible was finished around The first complete printed Czech Bible was published in Prague Bible.
The first complete Czech Bible translation from the original languages was published between and and is known as the Bible of Kralice.
The Codex Gigas from the 12th century is the largest extant medieval manuscript in the world. The Czech Republic has the densest network of libraries in Europe.
Czech literature and culture played a major role on at least two occasions when Czechs lived under oppression and political activity was suppressed.
On both of these occasions, in the early 19th century and then again in the s, the Czechs used their cultural and literary effort to strive for political freedom, establishing a confident, politically aware nation.
The musical tradition of the Czech lands arose from first church hymns, whose first evidence is suggested at the break of 10th and 11th century.
In , in the beginning of the Czechoslovak state, the song was discussed as one of the possible choices for the national anthem.
The wealth of musical culture in the Czech Republic lies in the long-term high-culture classical music tradition during all historical periods, especially in the Baroque , Classicism , Romantic, modern classical music and in the traditional folk music of Bohemia, Moravia and Silesia.
Since the early era of artificial music, Czech musicians and composers have often been influenced the folk music of the region and dances e.
Czech music can be considered to have been beneficial in both the European and worldwide context, several times co-determined or even determined a newly arriving era in musical art,  above all of Classical era, as well as by original attitudes in Baroque , Romantic and modern classical music.
The most famous music festival in the country is Prague Spring International Music Festival of classical music, a permanent showcase for outstanding performing artists, symphony orchestras and chamber music ensembles of the world.
The roots of Czech theatre can be found in the Middle Ages, especially in cultural life of gothic period. In the 19th century, the theatre played an important role in the national awakening movement and later, in the 20th century it became a part of the modern European theatre art.
Original Czech cultural phenomenon came into being at the end of the s. This project called Laterna magika The Magic Lantern was the brainchild of renowned film and theater director Alfred Radok , resulting in productions that combined theater, dance and film in a poetic manner, considered the first multimedia art project in international context.
The tradition of Czech cinematography started in the second half of the s. However, dramatic movies were more internationally successful.
Another Czech cultural phenomenon came into being at the end of the s. This project called Laterna magika "The Magic Lantern" , resulting in productions that combined theater, dance and film in a poetic manner, considered the first multimedia art project in international context mentioned also in Theatre section above.
The hallmark of the films of this movement were long, often improvised dialogues , black and absurd humor and the occupation of non-actors.
Directors are trying to preserve natural atmosphere without refinement and artificial arrangement of scenes.
He is a self-labeled surrealist known for his animations and features, which have greatly influenced many artists worldwide.
The Czech Lion is the highest Czech award for film achievement. The Barrandov Studios in Prague are the largest film studios in country and one of the largest in Europe with many many popular film locations in the country.
Karlovy Vary International Film Festival is one of the oldest in the world and has become Central and Eastern Europe's leading film event.
Since the Czech Republic is a democratic republic, journalists and media enjoy a great degree of freedom. There are restrictions only against writing in support of Nazism , racism or violating Czech law.
The most watched main news program is TV Nova. Newspapers are quite popular in the Czech Republic. The best-selling daily national newspapers are Blesk average 1.
The Czech Game of the Year Awards are held annually to recognize accomplishments in video game development.
Czech cuisine is marked by a strong emphasis on meat dishes. Pork is quite common; beef and chicken are also popular.
Goose, duck, rabbit and venison are served. Fish is less common, with the occasional exception of fresh trout and carp , which is served at Christmas.
Czech beer has a long and important history. The first brewery is known to have existed in and the Czech Republic has the highest beer consumption per capita in the world.
Apart from these and other major brands, the Czech Republic also has a growing number of small breweries and mini-breweries.
Aside from slivovitz , Czech beer and wine, the Czechs also produce two unique liquors , Fernet Stock and Becherovka. Kofola is a non-alcoholic domestic cola soft drink which competes with Coca-Cola and Pepsi in popularity.
Sports play a part in the life of many Czechs, who are generally loyal supporters of their favorite teams or individuals. The two leading sports in the Czech Republic are ice hockey and football.
The many other sports with professional leagues and structures include basketball, volleyball, team handball , track and field athletics and floorball.
The country has won 14 gold medals in summer plus 49 as Czechoslovakia and five gold medals plus two as Czechoslovakia in winter Olympic history. Czech hockey school has a good reputation.
The Czech ice hockey team won the gold medal at the Winter Olympics and has won twelve gold medals at the World Championships including 6 as Czechoslovakia , including three straight from to The Czechoslovakia national football team was a consistent performer on the international scene, with eight appearances in the FIFA World Cup Finals, finishing in second place in and The team also won the European Football Championship in , came in third in and won the Olympic gold in After dissolution of Czechoslovakia, the Czech national football team finished in second and third place at the European Football Championship.
Czech Republic women's national basketball team won the EuroBasket Women. Czechoslovakia national basketball team won EuroBasket It will take place in Prague for the Group Phase matches.
Czech Republic hosted the EuroBasket Women recently. MTX automobile company was formerly engaged in the manufacture of racing and formula cars since Czech Republic MotoGP is the most famous motor race in the country.
Sport is a source of strong waves of patriotism, usually rising several days or weeks before an event.
Czechs are also generally keen on engaging in sports activities themselves. One of the most popular sports Czechs do is hiking, mainly in the mountains.
The word for "tourist" in the Czech language, turista , also means "trekker" or "hiker". For hikers, thanks to the more than year-old tradition, there is a Czech Hiking Markers System of trail blazing , that has been adopted by countries worldwide.
The most significant sports venues are Eden Arena e. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Tschechien. Country in Central Europe.
For other uses, see Czechia disambiguation and Czech Republic disambiguation. Greater coat of arms. The question is rhetorical , implying "those places where my homeland lies".
Code 42 was shared with Slovakia until Main article: Name of the Czech Republic. Historical affiliations. Main article: History of the Czech lands.
Maximum Celtic expansion by the s BCE. Areas that remain Celtic-speaking today. Main article: Bohemia. Main article: History of Czechoslovakia.
Main articles: Velvet Revolution and Dissolution of Czechoslovakia. Main article: Geography of the Czech Republic. Berounka river valley in western Bohemia.
Beskids mountains in eastern Moravia. Humid continental climate. Oceanic climate. Subarctic climate. European eagle-owl , a protected predator. Fire salamander , a common amphibian in humid forests.
Red squirrel Sciurus vulgaris , a protected animal. Summer cep occurs in deciduous oak forests. Straka Academy , seat of the Government. Thun Palace, seat of the Chamber of Deputies.
Wallenstein Palace , seat of the Senate. Main article: Foreign relations of the Czech Republic. Main article: Army of the Czech Republic. Main article: Economy of the Czech Republic.
Main article: Energy in the Czech Republic. Main article: Transport in the Czech Republic. Main article: Internet in the Czech Republic.
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Main article: Culture of the Czech Republic. Main article: Czech architecture. Main article: Czech literature. Main articles: Music of the Czech Lands and Moravian traditional music.
The National Theatre left and the Estates Theatre right. Main article: Theatre of the Czech Republic.
Main article: Cinema of the Czech Republic. Main article: Video gaming in the Czech Republic. Main article: Czech cuisine.
Czech Cuisine. A mug of Pilsner Urquell , the first pilsner type of pale lager beer, brewed since Baked duck with sauerkraut. Easter bread baked during the celebrations of Easter.
Main article: Sport in the Czech Republic. Czech Republic portal. Czech Republic — Official website. Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Czech Republic.
Archived from the original on 6 November Retrieved 14 November Article 25 of the Czech Charter of Fundamental Rights and Basic Freedoms ensures the right of the national and ethnic minorities to education and communication with the authorities in their own language.
Act No. The Administrative Rule in its paragraph 16 4 Procedural Language ensures that a citizen of the Czech Republic who belongs to a national or an ethnic minority, which traditionally and on a long-term basis lives within the territory of the Czech Republic, has the right to address an administrative agency and proceed before it in the language of the minority.
If the administrative agency has no employee with knowledge of the language, the agency is bound to obtain a translator at the agency's own expense.
According to Act No. Archived PDF from the original on 9 August Retrieved 2 September Archived from the original on 12 January Czech Statistical Office.
Archived from the original PDF on 21 February Retrieved 23 April Retrieved 29 May Retrieved on 19 December International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 2 November Archived from the original on 20 March Retrieved 3 July United Nations Development Programme.
Retrieved 10 December Archived from the original on 11 January Retrieved 13 September Countries — 7. Designations and abbreviations to use".
Publications Office. Archived from the original on 20 October Retrieved 31 January The United Nations Terminology Database.
Archived from the original on 15 September Czech Foreign Ministry. Archived from the original on 3 April Retrieved 25 March Archived PDF from the original on 16 January Retrieved 31 October Archived from the original on 28 November Encyclopedia of the Cold War.
Archived from the original on 22 November Retrieved 13 December Radio Prague. Retrieved 22 January Archived from the original on 12 May Retrieved 14 May Accessed on 3 July Collins English Dictionary.
Archived from the original on 16 January Retrieved 19 November American Heritage Dictionary. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
Retrieved 24 January Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. Archived from the original on 12 April Retrieved 11 April Archived from the original on 9 December Archived from the original on 9 March Liste der Präsidenten und Ministerpräsidenten von Tschechien.
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