Midwest States Produktinformation
Der Mittlere Westen ist eine Region der Vereinigten Staaten. Der Name entstand im Jahrhundert aus dem Bedürfnis, sich von der Ostküste abzugrenzen, daher „Westen“ – aber eben nicht so weit im Westen wie die damalige Frontier. Der Mittlere Westen (englisch the Midwest) ist eine Region der Vereinigten Staaten. Der Name usgvox.nlmidwest/; ↑ David Montgomery: We Mapped 'the Midwest' for You, So Stop Arguing. Eine große Auswahl an Fotos & Bildern aus der Sektion Midwest states gibt es hier zu Midwest. Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri,. Schau dir unsere Auswahl an midwest states an, um die tollsten einzigartigen oder spezialgefertigten, handgemachten Stücke aus unseren Shops zu finden. AGA has stated that it does not make offers outside the areas in which it has an established market presence (Europe, the Midwest of the United States and.
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This is the beginning of the vast Interior Plains of North America. As a result, prairies cover most of the Great Plains states. Iowa and much of Illinois lie within an area called the prairie peninsula , an eastward extension of prairies that borders conifer and mixed forests to the north, and hardwood deciduous forests to the east and south.
Missouri and Arkansas have regions of Lowlands elevations, contrasting with their Ozark region within the Interior Highlands. Eastern Ohio's hills are an extension of the Appalachian Plateau.
These rivers have for tens of millions of years been eroding downward into the mostly horizontal sedimentary rocks of Paleozoic , Mesozoic , and Cenozoic ages.
Rainfall decreases from east to west, resulting in different types of prairies, with the tallgrass prairie in the wetter eastern region, mixed-grass prairie in the central Great Plains , and shortgrass prairie towards the rain shadow of the Rockies.
Much of the coniferous forests of the Upper Midwest were clear-cut in the late 19th century, and mixed hardwood forests have become a major component of the new woodlands since then.
The majority of the Midwest can now be categorized as urbanized areas or pastoral agricultural areas. Archaeological evidence indicates that Mississippian culture traits probably began in the St.
Louis, Missouri area and spread northwest along the Mississippi and Illinois rivers and entered the state along the Kankakee River system. Mississippian peoples in the Midwest were mostly farmers who followed the rich, flat floodplains of Midwestern rivers.
They brought with them a well-developed agricultural complex based on three major crops— maize , beans , and squash.
Maize, or corn, was the primary crop of Mississippian farmers. They gathered a wide variety of seeds, nuts, and berries, and fished and hunted for fowl to supplement their diets.
With such an intensive form of agriculture , this culture supported large populations. The Mississippi period was characterized by a mound-building culture.
The Mississippians suffered a tremendous population decline about , coinciding with the global climate change of the Little Ice Age.
Their culture effectively ended before Most numerous were the Hurons and Chippewas. Fighting and battle were often launched between tribes, with the losers forced to flee.
Most are of the Algonquian language family. Some tribes—such as the Stockbridge-Munsee and the Brothertown —are also Algonkian-speaking tribes who relocated from the eastern seaboard to the Great Lakes region in the 19th century.
In the 16th century, American Indians used projectiles and tools of stone, bone, and wood to hunt and farm. They made canoes for fishing.
Most of them lived in oval or conical wigwams that could be easily moved away. Various tribes had different ways of living.
The Ojibwas were primarily hunters and fishing was also important in the Ojibwas economy. Other tribes such as Sac, Fox, and Miami, both hunted and farmed.
They were oriented toward the open prairies where they engaged in communal hunts for buffalo bison.
In the northern forests, the Ottawas and Potawatomis separated into small family groups for hunting. The Winnebagos and Menominees used both hunting methods interchangeably and built up widespread trade networks extending as far west as the Rockies, north to the Great Lakes, south to the Gulf of Mexico , and east to the Atlantic Ocean.
The Hurons reckoned descent through the female line, while the others favored the patrilineal method. All tribes were governed under chiefdoms or complex chiefdoms.
For example, Hurons were divided into matrilineal clans, each represented by a chief in the town council, where they met with a town chief on civic matters.
But Chippewa people's social and political life was simpler than that of settled tribes. The religious beliefs varied among tribes. Hurons believed in Yoscaha , a supernatural being who lived in the sky and was believed to have created the world and the Huron people.
At death, Hurons thought the soul left the body to live in a village in the sky. Chippewas were a deeply religious people who believed in the Great Spirit.
They worshiped the Great Spirit through all their seasonal activities, and viewed religion as a private matter: Each person's relation with his personal guardian spirit was part of his thinking every day of life.
Ottawa and Potawatomi people had very similar religious beliefs to those of the Chippewas. In the Ohio River Valley, the dominant food supply was not hunting but agriculture.
There were orchards and fields of crops that were maintained by indigenous women. Corn was their most important crop. The Plains Indians are the indigenous peoples who live on the plains and rolling hills of the Great Plains of North America.
Their colorful equestrian culture and famous conflicts with settlers and the US Army have made the Plains Indians archetypical in literature and art for American Indians everywhere.
Plains Indians are usually divided into two broad classifications, with some degree of overlap. The first group were fully nomadic, following the vast herds of buffalo.
Some tribes occasionally engaged in agriculture, growing tobacco and corn primarily. The second group of Plains Indians sometimes referred to as Prairie Indians were the semi-sedentary tribes who, in addition to hunting buffalo, lived in villages and raised crops.
The nomadic tribes of the Great Plains survived on hunting , some of their major hunts centered on deer and buffalo. Some tribes are described as part of the 'Buffalo Culture' sometimes called, for the American Bison.
Although the Plains Indians hunted other animals, such as elk or antelope , bison was their primary game food source. Bison flesh, hide, and bones from Bison hunting provided the chief source of raw materials for items that Plains Indians made, including food, cups, decorations, crafting tools, knives, and clothing.
The tribes followed the bison's seasonal grazing and migration. The Plains Indians lived in teepees because they were easily disassembled and allowed the nomadic life of following game.
When Spanish horses were obtained, the Plains tribes rapidly integrated them into their daily lives.
By the early 18th century, many tribes had fully adopted a horse culture. Before their adoption of guns, the Plains Indians hunted with spears , bows , and bows and arrows , and various forms of clubs.
The use of horses by the Plains Indians made hunting and warfare much easier. Among the most powerful and dominant tribes were the Dakota or Sioux , who occupied large amounts of territory in the Great Plains of the Midwest.
The area of the Great Sioux Nation spread throughout the South and Midwest, up into the areas of Minnesota and stretching out west into the Rocky Mountains.
At the same time, they occupied the heart of prime buffalo range, and also an excellent region for furs they could sell to French and American traders for goods such as guns.
The Sioux Dakota became the most powerful of the Plains tribes and the greatest threat to American expansion. The Sioux comprise three major divisions based on Siouan dialect and subculture: [ citation needed ].
Today, the Sioux maintain many separate tribal governments scattered across several reservations, communities, and reserves in the Dakotas, Nebraska, Minnesota, and Montana in the United States, as well as Manitoba and southern Saskatchewan in Canada.
White defines the middle ground like so:. The middle ground is the place in between cultures, peoples, and in between empires and the non state world of villages.
It is a place where many of the North American subjects and allies of empires lived. It is the area between the historical foreground of European invasion and occupation and the background of Indian defeat and retreat.
White specifically designates "the lands bordering the rivers flowing into the northern Great Lakes and the lands south of the lakes to the Ohio" as the location of the middle ground.
The middle ground was formed on the foundations of mutual accommodation and common meanings established between the French and the Indians that then transformed and degraded as both were steadily lost in the transition of imperial power from the French to the British and, finally, to the United States.
European settlement of the area began in the 17th century following French exploration of the region and became known as New France.
The French period began with the exploration of the Saint Lawrence River by Jacques Cartier in and ending with their expulsion by the British, who split New France with Spain in They traveled through Michigan's upper peninsula to the northern tip of Lake Michigan.
On canoes, they crossed the massive lake and landed at present-day Green Bay , Wisconsin. They entered the Mississippi River on June 17, Marquette and Jolliet soon realized that the Mississippi could not possibly be the Northwest Passage because it flowed south.
Nevertheless, the journey continued. They recorded much of the wildlife they encountered. They turned around at the junction of the Mississippi River and Arkansas River and headed back.
Marquette and Jolliet were the first to map the northern portion of the Mississippi River. They confirmed that it was easy to travel from the St.
Lawrence River through the Great Lakes all the way to the Gulf of Mexico by water, that the native peoples who lived along the route were generally friendly, and that the natural resources of the lands in between were extraordinary.
New France officials led by LaSalle followed up and erected a 4,mile network of fur trading posts. The fur trade was an integral part of early European and Indian relations.
It was the foundation upon which their interactions were built and was a system that would evolve over time. Goods often traded included guns, clothing, blankets, strouds, cloth, tobacco, silver, and alcohol.
Template:Louisiana New France The French and Indian exchange of goods was called an exchange of gifts rather than a trade.
These gifts held greater meaning to the relationship between the two than a simple economic exchange because the trade itself was inseparable from the social relations it fostered and the alliance it created.
The French, regarded as the metaphoric father, were expected to provide for the needs of the Algonquians and, in return, the Algonquians, the metaphoric children, would be obligated to assist and obey them.
Traders coming into Indian villages facilitated this system of symbolic exchange to establish or maintain alliances and friendships.
Great Britain entered the Ohio country as a serious competitor in the fur trade around the s. This all would culminate in Pontiac's Rebellion during While French control ended in after their defeat by Britain, most of the several hundred French settlers in small villages along the Mississippi River and its tributaries remained, and were not disturbed by the new British government.
Louis and Ste. Genevieve in Missouri were the main towns, but there was little new settlement. Napoleon had lost interest in re-establishing a French colonial empire in North America following the Haitian Revolution and together with the fact that France could not effectively defend Louisiana from Great Britain, he sold the territory to the United States in the Louisiana Purchase of Meanwhile, the British maintained forts and trading posts in U.
Fort Pitt now Pittsburgh at the source of the Ohio River became the main base for settlers moving into the Midwest. Marietta, Ohio in became the first settlement in Ohio, but not until the defeat of Indian tribes at the Battle of Fallen Timbers in was large-scale settlement possible.
Large numbers also came north from Kentucky into southern Ohio, Indiana and Illinois. The region's fertile soil produced corn and vegetables; most farmers were self-sufficient.
They cut trees and claimed the land, then sold it to newcomers and then moved further west to repeat the process. Illegal settlers, called squatters, had been encroaching on the lands now the Midwest for years before the founding of the United States of America, pushing further and further down the Ohio River during the s and s and inciting conflict and competition with the Native Americans whose lands they intruded on every step of the way.
A number of means facilitated the legal settlement of the territories in the Midwest: land speculation , federal public land auctions , bounty land grants in lieu of pay to military veterans, and, later, preemption rights for squatters.
In , General Arthur St. Clair became commander of the United States Army and led a punitive expedition with two Regular Army regiments and some militia.
Near modern-day Fort Recovery , his force advanced to the location of Indian settlements near the headwaters of the Wabash River , but on November 4 they were routed in battle by a tribal confederation led by Miami Chief Little Turtle and Shawnee chief Blue Jacket.
More than soldiers and scores of women and children were killed in the battle, which has since borne the name " St. Clair's Defeat ". It remains the greatest defeat of a U.
Army by Native Americans. The British had a long-standing goal of building a "neutral", but pro-British Indian buffer state in the American Midwest.
The British then abandoned the Indians south of the lakes. The Indians were major losers in the War of The Lewis and Clark Expedition established relations with more than two dozen indigenous nations west of the Missouri River.
Louis in the spring of Yankee settlers from New England started arriving in Ohio before , and spread throughout the northern half of the Midwest.
Most of them started as farmers, but later the larger proportion moved to towns and cities as entrepreneurs, businessmen, and urban professionals.
Since its beginnings in the s, Chicago has grown to dominate the Midwestern metropolis landscape for over a century. Because they arrived first and had a strong sense of community and mission, Yankees were able to transplant New England institutions, values, and mores, altered only by the conditions of frontier life.
They established a public culture that emphasized the work ethic, the sanctity of private property, individual responsibility, faith in residential and social mobility, practicality, piety, public order and decorum, reverence for public education, activists, honest, and frugal government, town meeting democracy, and he believed that there was a public interest that transcends particular and stick ambitions.
Regarding themselves as the elect and just in a world rife with sin, air, and corruption, they felt a strong moral obligation to define and enforce standards of community and personal behavior Midwestern politics pitted Yankees against the German Catholics and Lutherans, who were often led by the Irish Catholics.
These large groups, Buenker argues:. Generally subscribed to the work ethic, a strong sense of community, and activist government, but were less committed to economic individualism and privatism and ferociously opposed to government supervision of the personal habits.
Southern and eastern European immigrants generally leaned more toward the Germanic view of things, while modernization, industrialization, and urbanization modified nearly everyone's sense of individual economic responsibility and put a premium on organization, political involvement, and education.
Three waterways have been important to the development of the Midwest. The first and foremost was the Ohio River , which flowed into the Mississippi River.
Development of the region was halted until by Spain 's control of the southern part of the Mississippi and its refusal to allow the shipment of American crops down the river and into the Atlantic Ocean.
The second waterway is the network of routes within the Great Lakes. The opening of the Erie Canal in completed an all-water shipping route, more direct than the Mississippi, to New York and the seaport of New York City.
Lakeport and river cities grew up to handle these new shipping routes. During the Industrial Revolution , the lakes became a conduit for iron ore from the Mesabi Range of Minnesota to steel mills in the Mid-Atlantic States.
The third waterway, the Missouri River , extended water travel from the Mississippi almost to the Rocky Mountains.
His stories became staples of Midwestern lore. Twain's hometown of Hannibal, Missouri , is a tourist attraction offering a glimpse into the Midwest of his time.
Inland canals in Ohio and Indiana constituted another important waterway, which connected with Great Lakes and Ohio River traffic. During the midth century, the region got its first railroads, and the railroad junction in Chicago became the world's largest.
During the century, Chicago became the nation's railroad center. By , over 20 railroads operated passenger service out of six different downtown terminals.
In the period from to , many Midwestern cities were connected by electric interurban railroads, similar to streetcars. The Midwest had more interurbans than any other region.
These two states alone had almost a third of the country's interurban trackage. During the s decade , the city's 38 percent growth in population was attributed largely to the interurban.
Competition with automobiles and buses undermined the interurban and other railroad passenger business. By , Detroit was the world center of the auto industry, and soon practically every city within miles was producing auto parts that fed into its giant factories.
Ford's manufacturing—and those of automotive pioneers William C. Durant , the Dodge brothers, Packard , and Walter Chrysler —established Detroit's status in the early 20th century as the world's automotive capital.
The proliferation of businesses created a synergy that also encouraged truck manufacturers such as Rapid and Grabowsky. The growth of the auto industry was reflected by changes in businesses throughout the Midwest and nation, with the development of garages to service vehicles and gas stations, as well as factories for parts and tires.
The Northwest Ordinance region, comprising the heart of the Midwest, was the first large region of the United States that prohibited slavery the Northeastern United States emancipated slaves in the s.
The Midwest, particularly Ohio, provided the primary routes for the Underground Railroad , whereby Midwesterners assisted slaves to freedom from their crossing of the Ohio River through their departure on Lake Erie to Canada.
Created in the early 19th century, the Underground Railroad was at its height between and One estimate suggests that by , , slaves had escaped via the Underground Railroad.
The Underground Railroad consisted of meeting points, secret routes, transportation, and safe houses and assistance provided by abolitionist sympathizers.
Individuals were often organized in small, independent groups; this helped to maintain secrecy because individuals knew some connecting "stations" along the route, but knew few details of their immediate area.
Escaped slaves would move north along the route from one way station to the next. Although the fugitives sometimes traveled on boat or train, they usually traveled on foot or by wagon.
The region was shaped by the relative absence of slavery except for Missouri , pioneer settlement, education in one-room free public schools , democratic notions brought by American Revolutionary War veterans, Protestant faiths and experimentation, and agricultural wealth transported on the Ohio River riverboats , flatboats , canal boats , and railroads.
The first violent conflicts leading up to the Civil War occurred between two neighboring Midwestern states, Kansas and Missouri, involving anti-slavery Free-Staters and pro-slavery " Border Ruffian " elements, that took place in the Kansas Territory and the western frontier towns of Missouri roughly between and At the heart of the conflict was the question of whether Kansas would enter the Union as a free state or slave state.
As such, Bleeding Kansas was a proxy war between Northerners and Southerners over the issue of slavery. The Act created the territories of Kansas and Nebraska, opened new lands that would help settlement in them, repealed the Missouri Compromise , and allowed settlers in those territories to determine through popular sovereignty whether to allow slavery within their boundaries.
It was hoped the Act would ease relations between the North and the South, because the South could expand slavery to new territories, but the North still had the right to abolish slavery in its states.
Instead, opponents denounced the law as a concession to the slave power of the South. The new Republican Party , born in the Midwest Ripon, Wisconsin , and created in opposition to the Act, aimed to stop the expansion of slavery, and soon emerged as the dominant force throughout the North.
An ostensibly democratic idea, popular sovereignty stated that the inhabitants of each territory or state should decide whether it would be a free or slave state; however, this resulted in immigration en masse to Kansas by activists from both sides.
At one point, Kansas had two separate governments, each with its own constitution, although only one was federally recognized. On January 29, , Kansas was admitted to the Union as a free state, less than three months before the Battle of Fort Sumter officially began the Civil War.
The calm in Kansas was shattered in May by two events that are often regarded as the opening shots of the Civil War. A few days later, the Sacking of Lawrence led abolitionist John Brown and six of his followers to execute five men along the Pottawatomie Creek in Franklin County , Kansas, in retaliation.
The U. Geary, managed to prevail upon the Missourians to return home in late A fragile peace followed, but violent outbreaks continued intermittently for several more years.
National reaction to the events in Kansas demonstrated how deeply divided the country had become. The Border Ruffians were widely applauded in the South, even though their actions had cost the lives of numerous people.
In the North, the murders committed by Brown and his followers were ignored by most, and lauded by a few. The civil conflict in Kansas was a product of the political fight over slavery.
Federal troops were not used to decide a political question, but they were used by successive territorial governors to pacify the territory so that the political question of slavery in Kansas could finally be decided by peaceful, legal, and political means.
The election of Abraham Lincoln in November was the final trigger for secession by the Southern states.
Southern leaders feared that Lincoln would stop the expansion of slavery and put it on a course toward extinction. All of the Midwestern states but one, Missouri, banned slavery.
Though most battles were fought in the South, skirmishes between Kansas and Missouri continued until culmination with the Lawrence Massacre on August 21, Quantrill's band of Missouri guerrillas raided and plundered Lawrence, killing more than and burning all the business buildings and most of the dwellings.
Pursued by federal troops, the band escaped to Missouri. Lawrence was targeted because of the town's long-time support of abolition and its reputation as a center for Redlegs and Jayhawkers , which were free-state militia and vigilante groups known for attacking and families in Missouri's pro-slavery western counties.
Poles , Hungarians , and Jews settled in Midwestern cities. The Midwest was no exception, dotted with small farms all across the region.
The late 19th century saw industrialization , immigration , and urbanization that fed the Industrial Revolution , and the heart of industrial domination and innovation was in the Great Lakes states of the Midwest, which only began its slow decline by the late 20th century.
A flourishing economy brought residents from rural communities and immigrants from abroad. Manufacturing and retail and finance sectors became dominant, influencing the American economy.
In addition to manufacturing, printing, publishing, and food processing also play major roles in the Midwest's largest economy.
Chicago was the base of commercial operations for industrialists John Crerar , John Whitfield Bunn , Richard Teller Crane , Marshall Field , John Farwell , Julius Rosenwald , and many other commercial visionaries who laid the foundation for Midwestern and global industry.
Rockefeller , creator of the Standard Oil Company, made his billions in Cleveland. Louis, Cleveland, Milwaukee, Kansas City, Cincinnati, Detroit, Omaha, Minneapolis, and many other cities in the Midwest, as factories and schools enticed families by the thousands to new opportunities.
Chicago alone gained hundreds of thousands of black citizens from the Great Migration and the Second Great Migration. The Gateway Arch monument in St.
Louis, clad in stainless steel and built in the form of a flattened catenary arch ,  is the tallest man-made monument in the United States,  and the world's tallest arch.
Louis and the Midwest. As the Midwest opened up to settlement via waterways and rail in the mids, Germans began to settle there in large numbers.
The largest flow of German immigration to America occurred between and World War I, during which time nearly six million Germans immigrated to the United States.
From to , they were the largest group of immigrants. The Midwestern cities of Milwaukee , Cincinnati , St.
Louis , and Chicago were favored destinations of German immigrants. By , the populations of the cities of Cleveland , Milwaukee, Hoboken , and Cincinnati were all more than 40 percent German American.
Dubuque and Davenport , Iowa, had even larger proportions; in Omaha , Nebraska, the proportion of German Americans was 57 percent in In many other cities of the Midwest, such as Fort Wayne , Indiana, German Americans were at least 30 percent of the population.
A favorite destination was Milwaukee, known as "the German Athens". Radical Germans trained in politics in the old country dominated the city's Socialists.
Skilled workers dominated many crafts, while entrepreneurs created the brewing industry; the most famous brands included Pabst , Schlitz , Miller , and Blatz.
While half of German immigrants settled in cities, the other half established farms in the Midwest. From Ohio to the Plains states, a heavy presence persists in rural areas into the 21st century.
Throughout the 19th and 20th centuries, German Americans showed a high interest in becoming farmers, and keeping their children and grandchildren on the land.
Western railroads, with large land grants available to attract farmers, set up agencies in Hamburg and other German cities, promising cheap transportation, and sales of farmland on easy terms.
Agriculture is one of the biggest drivers of local economies in the Midwest, accounting for billions of dollars worth of exports and thousands of jobs.
The area consists of some of the richest farming land in the world. Wallace , a pioneer of hybrid seeds, declared in that the Corn Belt developed the "most productive agricultural civilization the world has ever seen".
The very dense soil of the Midwest plagued the first settlers who were using wooden plows , which were more suitable for loose forest soil.
On the prairie, the plows bounced around and the soil stuck to them. This problem was solved in by an Illinois blacksmith named John Deere who developed a steel moldboard plow that was stronger and cut the roots, making the fertile soils of the prairie ready for farming.
In cooler regions, wheat was often the crop of choice when lands were newly settled, leading to a "wheat frontier" that moved westward over the course of years.
Also very common in the antebellum Midwest was farming corn while raising hogs , complementing each other especially since it was difficult to get grain to market before the canals and railroads.
After the "wheat frontier" had passed through an area, more diversified farms including dairy and beef cattle generally took its place.
This development was facilitated by the Morrill Act and the Hatch Act of which established in each state a land-grant university with a mission to teach and study agriculture and a federally funded system of agricultural experiment stations and cooperative extension networks which place extension agents in each state.
Iowa State University became the nation's first designated land-grant institution when the Iowa Legislature accepted the provisions of the Morrill Act on September 11, , making Iowa the first state in the nation to do so.
Between and , the United States' share of world soybean production skyrocketed from 3 percent to In , Iowa produced The tallgrass prairie has been converted into one of the most intensive crop producing areas in North America.
As an example of this land use intensity, Illinois and Iowa rank 49th and 50th out of 50 states in total uncultivated land remaining.
Iowa produces the largest corn crop of any state. In , Iowa farmers produced Wheat is produced throughout the Midwest and is the principal cereal grain in the country.
Department of Agriculture defines eight official classes of wheat: durum wheat, hard red spring wheat, hard red winter wheat, soft red winter wheat, hard white wheat, soft white wheat, unclassed wheat, and mixed wheat.
Midwestern states also lead the nation in other agricultural commodities, including pork Iowa , beef and veal Nebraska , dairy Wisconsin , and chicken eggs Iowa.
Chicago was named the fourth most important business center in the world in the MasterCard Worldwide Centers of Commerce Index.
Outside of Chicago, many other Midwest cities are host to financial centers as well. Navigable terrain, waterways, and ports spurred an unprecedented construction of transportation infrastructure throughout the region.
The region is a global leader in advanced manufacturing and research and development, with significant innovations in both production processes and business organization.
John D. Rockefeller's Standard Oil set precedents for centralized pricing, uniform distribution, and controlled product standards through Standard Oil, which started as a consolidated refinery in Cleveland.
Cyrus McCormick 's Reaper and other manufacturers of agricultural machinery consolidated into International Harvester in Chicago.
Andrew Carnegie 's steel production integrated large-scale open-hearth and Bessemer processes into the world's most efficient and profitable mills.
The largest, most comprehensive monopoly in the world, United States Steel , consolidated steel production throughout the region.
Many of the world's largest employers began in the Great Lakes region. Mass marketing in the modern sense was born in the region.
Two competing Chicago retailers— Montgomery Ward and Sears Roebuck —developed mass marketing and sales through catalogues, mail-order distribution, and the establishment of their brand names as purveyors of consumer goods.
The region's natural features, cultural institutions, and resorts make it a popular destination for tourism. Advantages of accessible waterways, highly developed transportation infrastructure, finance, and a prosperous market base makes the region the global leader in automobile production and a global business location.
Henry Ford 's movable assembly line and integrated production set the model and standard for major car manufactures. The Detroit area emerged as the world's automotive center, with facilities throughout the region.
Akron, Ohio became the global leader in rubber production, driven by the demand for tires. Over million tons of cargo are shipped annually through the Great Lakes.
Like the rest of the United States, the Midwest is predominantly Christian. The majority of Midwesterners are Protestants , with rates from 48 percent in Illinois to 63 percent in Iowa.
Judaism and Islam are collectively practiced by 2 percent of the population, with higher concentrations in major urban areas.
People with no religious affiliation make up 22 percent of the Midwest's population. Many Midwestern universities, both public and private, are members of the Association of American Universities AAU , a bi-national organization of leading public and private research universities devoted to maintaining a strong system of academic research and education.
Of the 62 members from the U. Numerous state university systems have established regional campuses statewide.
The numerous state teachers colleges were upgraded into state universities after Local boosters, usually with a church affiliation, created numerous colleges in the midth century.
The heavy German immigration played a major role in establishing musical traditions, especially choral and orchestral music.
The Southern Diaspora of the 20th century saw more than twenty million Southerners move throughout the country, many of whom moved into major Midwestern industrial cities such as Chicago, Detroit, Cleveland, and St.
Kansas City developed its own jazz style. The electrified Chicago blues sound exemplifies the genre, as popularized by record labels Chess and Alligator and portrayed in such films as The Blues Brothers , Godfathers and Sons , and Adventures in Babysitting.
Rock and roll music was first identified as a new genre in by Cleveland disc jockey Alan Freed who began playing this music style while popularizing the term "rock and roll" to describe it.
Freed's contribution in identifying rock as a new genre helped establish the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame , located in Cleveland.
Chuck Berry , a Midwesterner from St. Louis, was among the first successful rock and roll artists and influenced many other rock musicians.
These artists achieved their greatest success in the s and s. In the s and s, native Midwestern musicians such as John Mellencamp and Bob Seger found great success with a style of rock music that came to be known as heartland rock , which were characterized by lyrical themes that focused on and appealed to the Midwestern working class.
In the s, the Chicago-based band The Smashing Pumpkins emerged, and went on to become one of the most successful alternative rock artists of the decade.
Also in the s, the Midwest was at the center of the emerging Midwest emo movement, with bands like The Get Up Kids Missouri , Cursive Nebraska , and Cap'n Jazz Illinois blending earlier hard-core punk sounds with a more melodic indie rock sentiment.
This hybrid of styles came to be known as Midwest emo. In the late s, Eminem and Kid Rock emerged from the Detroit area. Eminem went on to become one of the most commercially successful and critically acclaimed rappers of all time.
Meanwhile, Kid Rock successfully mixed elements of rap, hard rock, heavy metal, country rock, and pop in forming his own unique sound.
Both artists are known for celebrating their Detroit roots. House Music and Techno both had their roots in Chicago and Detroit respectively in the mid-to-late s.
House music producers such as Frankie Knuckles and Marshall Jefferson recorded early house music records at Chicago's Trax Records while in Detroit, techno pioneers Juan Atkins , Derrick May , and Kevin Saunderson created a sound that, while ignored mostly in America, became quite popular in Europe.
Also notable is Peter Schickele , born in Iowa and partially raised in North Dakota, best known for his classical music parodies attributed to his alter ego of P.
Successful teams include the St. The Milwaukee Mile hosted its first automobile race in , and is one of the oldest tracks in the world, though as of is presently inactive.
The Road America and Mid-Ohio road courses opened in the s and s respectively. The Kentucky Speedway is just outside the officially defined Midwest, but is linked with the region because the track is located in the Cincinnati metropolitan area.
Differences in the definition of the Midwest mainly split between the Great Plains region on one side, and the Great Lakes region on the other.
While some point to the small towns and agricultural communities in Kansas, Iowa, the Dakotas, and Nebraska of the Great Plains as representative of traditional Midwestern lifestyles and values, others assert that the industrial cities of the Great Lakes—with their histories of 19th- and earlyth-century immigration, manufacturing base, and strong Catholic influence—are more representative of the Midwestern experience.
In South Dakota, for instance, West River the region west of the Missouri River shares cultural elements with the western United States, while East River has more in common with the rest of the Midwest.
All of the lower Midwestern states, especially Missouri, have a major Southern component, and Missouri was a slave state before the Civil War.
Western Pennsylvania , which contains the cities of Erie and Pittsburgh , plus the Western New York cities of Buffalo and possibly Rochester , share history with the Midwest, but overlap with Appalachia and the Northeast as well.
Kentucky is rarely considered part of the Midwest, although it can be grouped with it in some contexts. In addition to intra-American regional overlaps, the Upper Peninsula of Michigan has historically had strong cultural ties to Canada , partly as a result of early settlement by French Canadians.
Moreover, the Yooper accent shares some traits with Canadian English , further demonstrating transnational cultural connections.
Similar but less pronounced mutual Canadian-American cultural influence occurs throughout the Great Lakes region. The accents of the region are generally distinct from those of the South and of the urban areas of the American Northeast.
To a lesser degree, they are also distinct from the accent of the American West. The accent characteristic of most of the Midwest is popularly considered to be that of "standard" American English or General American.
This accent is typically preferred by many national radio and television producers. Linguist Thomas Bonfiglio argues that, "American English pronunciation standardized as 'network standard' or, informally, 'Midwestern' in the 20th century.
Currently, many cities in the Great Lakes region are undergoing the Northern cities vowel shift away from the standard pronunciation of vowels. Missouri has elements of three dialects, specifically: Northern Midland , in the extreme northern part of the state, with a distinctive variation in St.
Louis and the surrounding area; Southern Midland, in the majority of the state; and Southern , in the southwestern and southeastern parts of the state, with a bulge extending north in the central part, to include approximately the southern one-third.
The rate of potentially preventable hospital discharges in the Midwestern United States fell from to for overall conditions, acute conditions, and chronic conditions.
Anyone registered for Coyote Summer will be first to be sent an invite for Midwest States if spots are open. Use hashtags and share photos to win unique prizes!
We will be scrolling through all social media choosing our favorite photos! If you register by July 1st , we will mail race swag out August 15th.
If you register by July 20th , we will mail race swag out August 30th. Virtual Preview Race Distance options. Midwest States 10 consecutive days or less.
Midwest States k: 10 consecutive days or less. Register for our Virtual Midwest States or k and you will be able to sign up for Midwest States physical race in three weeks before registration opens up to the general public.
This will guarantee you a spot in this exciting race! Course uses portions of the Ice Age trail and Pine line trail. Course is a work in progress.
We will post updates as we finalize race logistics. Chequamegon National Forest Medford area, Wisconsin. All participants in the preview race will be offered a spot to the race 3 weeks before the general public.
Midwest States Trail Race we are offering the race as a virtual preview race. Register for Virtual Race. Submit Virtual Race Results.
Join our Facebook page to follow each other's race. Midwest States mailing schedule If you register by May 31st , we will mail race swag out June 30th If you register by June 20th , we will mail race swag out July 30th.
Belt buckle option- 2 choices pay extra for shipping and have your swag mailed out on schedule, with the buckle coming later no charge for shipping and we mail your swag out when the buckles arrive AWARDS-.
Virtual Preview Race Distance options Midwest States 10 consecutive days or less Midwest States k: 10 consecutive days or less.
Great swag, finisher medal, and virtual experience! Deep dark woods. Located in Chequamegon National Forest. Facebook page for updates on the Trail Race!